And yes, I know it isn't this easy, but am hopeful anyway...
If the prostate cancer was metastatic then the AME will have to defer your case to the FAA for review. They'll need to see:
☐ Current status report from oncologist describing treatment plan, how long the condition has been stable, and prognosis;
☐ List of medications and presence or absence of side effects with specific attention to any chemotherapy, steroids, or hormone agents and dates used;
☐ Treatment records including clinic notes or a summary letter describing initial staging, disease course, locations of metastatic disease, and stability;
☐ Operative notes and discharge summary, if applicable;
☐ Pathology report(s), if applicable; and
☐ Results of MRI/CT or PET scan reports. (In some cases, the actual CDs will be required in DICOM format for FAA review).
And if you don't meet those criteria, don't go for the FAA medical exam until you do. Beyond that, ask Dr. Bruce Chien, who will probably chime in later tonight.
At the next medical the AME needs enough infomration to declare that "Elvis never left the building" and he makes the CACI statement, and issues you the certificate.
Boomer At AOPA:
As Ron and Bruce have said, usually once you have been cleared by your doctor and treatment is complete then you can continue to self assess and then report the prostate cancer at your next medical.
That's not what I said. Since cancer is a disqualifying condition, per 61.53(a)(1), he is grounded until he gets a new issuance.